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Withholding for Employers

Employers should request that each employee complete a W-4VT, Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate, in addition to a federal Form W-4, so that the employer may correctly calculate their Vermont Income Tax Withholding. The form will help employees determine the number of allowances to take. Even employees who have recently updated their W-4s should make sure that they have completed the most recent version of the W-4VT. Read our frequently asked questions about Vermont employees' withholding allowance certificates to learn more.

Hiring Relocated and Remote Workers

Although all income earned in Vermont is considered Vermont income, out-of-state employers are not required to begin withholding Vermont Income Tax until an employee has been working from a Vermont location for thirty days. If an employee lives and works remotely in Vermont, then income earned during the entire period of time that they live in Vermont is subject to Vermont income tax. This is true even if they claim another state as their domicile. Employers should work with these employees to make sure that the correct amount of Vermont income tax is withheld, and completing the W-4VT will help.

Each employee will need to complete a W-4VT, Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate, in order to calculate their Vermont Income Tax Withholding. The form will help them determine the number of allowances to take. Here are some frequently asked questions about Vermont employee's withholding allowance certificates.

Payment Frequency for Employers

Payments for Tax Withheld

  • Generally, your payment frequency will mirror your federal payment frequency; for example, if you are required to pay your Federal Withholding Tax semi-weekly, you are required to pay the Vermont Withholding Tax semi-weekly.

Quarterly Payment frequency

Monthly Payment Frequency

  • You must pay withholding tax for the month by the 25th day of the following month. (Exception: January’s payment is due the 23rd day of February but extended to the following Monday if the 23rd occurs on a weekend). For example, withholding tax for the month of June must be paid by July 25. You should pay the first and second months by their due dates, as stated above. The third payment should be made when you file Form WHT-436, Quarterly Withholding Reconciliation.

Semiweekly Payment Frequency

  • Tax withheld for pay dates on Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday is due the following Wednesday. Tax withheld for all other pay dates is due the following Friday.  The due date for payments will not usually coincide with the due date for Form WHT-436, Quarterly Withholding Reconciliation.

Quarterly Reconciliation

All taxpayers (Semiweekly, Monthly, and Quarterly) are required to file Form WHT-436, Quarterly Withholding Reconciliation, at the close of each quarter.

Annual Reconciliation

All taxpayers (Semiweekly, Monthly, and Quarterly) are now required to file Form WHT-434, Annual Withholding Reconciliation, due the last day of January. This form serves as the transmittal for forms W-2 or 1099 and reconciles the amount of Vermont income tax withholding reported during the year to the amount of withholding tax shown on the W-2 and/or 1099 forms.

How to File 

Online

All taxpayers may file returns and pay tax due for Withholding Tax using myVTax, our free, secure online filing site. Filing online through myVTax is mandated by the Commissioner of Taxes.

You must file and pay electronically if:

  • you submit 25 or more W-2 and/or 1099 forms with Form WHT-434, Annual Withholding Reconciliation, or

  • you pay withholding tax on the semi-weekly schedule or

  • a payroll filing service is used

Commissioner's Mandate for Tax Exceeding $100,000: If your total withholding remitted for the prior calendar year exceeded $100,000, the Commissioner of Taxes has mandated that you must file and pay electronically. The director of the Division of Taxpayer Services will consider a written request for an exemption based on extraordinary circumstances.

Paper Returns

You may file using paper forms if:

  • you submit fewer than 25 W-2 and/or 1099 forms, and

  • you pay withholding tax on the quarterly or monthly schedule, and

  • you do not use a payroll filing service, and

  • you cannot file and pay through myVTax

Here is a list of what you’ll need, whether you file your own returns or see a tax professional.

  1. Business Name

  2. Federal ID Number

  3. Mailing Address

  4. Reporting Period

  5. Business Tax Account Number

  6. Total Vermont income tax withheld from your employees for the reporting period

  7. Employers should have all employees complete Form W-4VT, Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate 

  8. All employers are required to file Form WH-434, Reconciliation of Withholding Tax Account, annually

How to Amend a Return

Online

Login to myVTax, and select Amending Returns.

Paper Returns

Submit the amended return with the word AMENDED written at the top of the form.

Withholding Forms and Guidance

myVTax Instructions

Title Number Revised
myVTax Guide: How to Cancel a Submission or Transaction GB-1133 2024
myVTax Guide: How to File, View, Pay, and Access a Saved Return Without Logging In GB-1289 2020
myVTax Guide: How to Log In and File, View, or Amend a Return GB-1288 2020
myVTax Guide: How to Make an e-Payment on an Established myVTax Account GB-1208 2020
myVTax Guide: Submitting W-2s, 1099s, and WHT-434 GB-1098 2020
Vermont Specifications for E-filing of 1099 Information Returns GB-1117 2023
Vermont Specifications for Electronic W-2 (EFW-2) Filing GB-1118 2023
Vermont WHT-434 Specifications for Electronic Filing GB-1119 2023
myVTax Specifications for Filing VT Form WHT-436 Electronically GB-1120 2023

Tax Forms and Instructions

Form Number Instructions Title Revised
W-4VT Included with form Vermont Income Tax Return Booklet 2022
WHT-430 Included with form

Withholding Tax Payment

Use this voucher for the first and second payments of each quarter if you are a monthly filer, are not mandated to use myVTax, and cannot file and pay through myVTax.

2020
WHT-434 Instructions

Annual Withholding Reconciliation

All taxpayers must file this reconciliation every year.

2020
WHT-436, HC-1 Instructions

Quarterly Withholding Reconciliation and Health Care Contribution

All taxpayers must file this reconciliation every quarter. If you are a monthly payer, you should pay the first and second months by their due dates. The third month’s payment should be made when you file Form WHT-436, Quarterly Withholding Reconciliation. If you are a quarterly payer, you should pay when you file Form WHT-436, Quarterly Withholding Reconciliation.

2022

Calculators

Title
Tax Withholding Estimator (www.irs.gov)

Withholding Instructions and Guidance

Title Number Revised
2024 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2024 2023
2024 Withholding Record of Payment NTC-1257 2024
Vermont Department of Taxes ACH Credit Payment Guide GB-1104 2023

Prior Year Withholding Instructions

Title Number Revised
2023 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2023 2023
2022 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2022 2022
2021 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2021 2021
2020 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2020 2020
2019 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2019 2019
2018 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2018 2018
2017 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2017 2017
2016 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2016 2016
2015 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2015 2015
2014 Income Tax Withholding Instructions, Tables, and Charts GB-1210-2014 2014

Filing Frequencies

File Form WHT-436 or Form WHT-434, together with your payment on the dates indicated. The Vermont Department of Taxes determines the filing frequency for each taxpayer. If the listed due date falls on a weekend or holiday, the due date is the following business day.

2024 Withholding Record of Payment (PDF)

Semi-Weekly Filers

Tax Period Ending File By Submit
12/31/2023 1/25/2024 Form WHT-436
12/31/2023 1/31/2024 Form WHT-434 Annual Reconciliation
3/31/2024 4/25/2024 Form WHT-436
6/30/2024 7/25/2024 Form WHT-436
9/30/2024 10/25/2024 Form WHT-436
12/31/2024 1/27/2025 Form WHT-436
12/31/2024 1/31/2025 Form WHT-434 Annual Reconciliation

Monthly Filers

Tax Period Ending File By Submit
12/31/2023 1/25/2024 Payment and Form WHT-436
12/31/2023 1/31/2024 Form WHT-434 Annual Reconciliation
1/31/2024 2/23/2024 Payment Only
2/29/2024 3/25/2024 Payment Only
3/31/2024 4/25/2024 Payment and Form WHT-436
4/30/2024 5/28/2024 Payment Only
5/31/2024 6/25/2024 Payment Only
6/30/2024 7/25/2024 Payment and Form WHT-436
7/31/2024 8/26/2024 Payment Only
8/31/2024 9/25/2024 Payment Only
9/30/2024 10/25/2024 Payment and Form WHT-436
10/31/2024 11/25/2024 Payment Only
11/30/2024 12/26/2024 Payment Only
12/31/2024 1/27/2025 Payment and Form WHT-436
12/31/2024 1/31/2025 Form WHT-434 Annual Reconciliation

Quarterly Filers

Tax Period Ending File By Submit
12/31/2023 1/25/2024 Form WHT-436
12/31/2023 1/31/2024 Form WHT-434 Annual Reconciliation
3/31/2024 4/25/2024 Form WHT-436
6/30/2024 7/25/2024 Form WHT-436
9/30/2024 10/25/2024 Form WHT-436
12/31/2024 1/27/2025 Form WHT-436
12/31/2024 1/21/2025 Form WHT-434 Annual Reconciliation

Laws, Rules, and Regulations

Title Section
Income Taxes 32 V.S.A. § 5841-5844
Filing of federal form 1099 32 V.S.A. § 5862d
Determining the Correct Vermont Withholding by Employees TB-23 Under Review