What Is Taxable Income?

Taxable income is defined in 32 V.S.A. § 5811(21) as federal taxable income with certain additions and subtractions. For information on income that is taxable and nontaxable at the federal level, see IRS Publication 525, Taxable and Nontaxable Income.


Income from Non-Vermont State and Local Obligations

Interest and dividend income from non-Vermont state and local obligations are taxable in Vermont and must be included in your Vermont taxable income. This may have been paid directly to you or through a mutual fund or other legal entity that invests in state and local obligations outside of Vermont.

Use Schedule IN-112, VT Tax Adjustments and Credits to calculate income.

Bonus Depreciation Allowed Under Federal Law Depreciation

Vermont does not recognize the bonus depreciation allowed under federal law. Depreciation is an income tax deduction that allows a taxpayer to recover the cost or other basis of certain property. See the IRS website for more on depreciation.

Read Technical Bulletin 44, Disallowance of Bonus Depreciation Provisions of Federal Economic Stimulus Act of 2008, for information on calculating the amount to add back to taxable income.



Social Security Exemption

Act 11 of the 2018 special legislative session created a Vermont personal income tax exemption for Social Security beneficiaries who are below certain income thresholds. The new law eliminates or reduces the Vermont tax imposed on federally taxable Social Security benefits for nearly 40,000 income-eligible taxpayers. For more information, see the Social Security Exemption Overview.

Interest Income from U.S. Obligations

Interest income from U.S. government obligations, such as U.S. Treasury bonds, bills, and notes, is exempt from Vermont tax under the laws of the United States. Read Technical Bulletin 24, Exemption of Income of U.S. Obligations, for more information.

Capital Gains Exclusion

Vermont allows a portion of net adjusted capital gains, as defined by IRS Section 1(h), to be excluded from Vermont taxable income. Qualified Dividends are not eligible for capital gains treatment for Vermont tax purposes. You may elect to take either the Flat Exclusion or the Percentage Exclusion.  The amount excluded under either method cannot exceed 40% of federal taxable income.

Flat Exclusion

Is the general exclusion amount allowed for a particular tax year or the actual amount of net adjusted capital gains, whichever is less.

Percentage Exclusion

Allows you to you exclude up to 40% of your adjusted net capital gain from the sale of assets held for more than three years. Only certain categories of capital gain income are eligible for this exclusion.

To file for a capital gains exclusion, use Vermont Schedule IN-153, VT Capital Gains Exclusion. For more information, see the instructions on Schedule IN-153 and Reg. §1.5811.(21)(B)(ii). 

Adjustment for Bonus Depreciation on Prior Year Property

If you claimed bonus depreciation in the previous year, you can subtract the difference between the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation and federal depreciation from your federal tax return.